Life giving mists in the driest deserts
The costal deserts of Central and Southern Peru, combined with the costal deserts of Northern Chile, are some of the driest places in the world. The Atacoma desert in Northern Chile is, to my knowledge, THE driest place in the world (excluding the poles). These deserts (including Lima, the Peruvian capital) typically get 0.2-0.6 inches (5-15 mm) of rain a year. In comparison, Phoenix gets around 8 inches (200 mm) a year, and Death Valley gets around 2.4 inches (60 mm) a year. This incredible lack of rain in these Peruvian deserts leads to some very, very barren areas. As I drove around the deserts of Central Peru, there was very little growing anywhere. It made the Sonoran deserts around Phoenix seem like a lush tropical rainforest in comparison.
But, despite this dryness, there is life to be found in these deserts if you know where to look. During certain times of year, water filled costal air blows onto land and gets carried upwards by the immediate slopes of the Andes Mountains. At low elevations (~300-1500 ft; 100-500m), this causes dense blankets of fog and mist to form and settle on the land. While it still does not rain, many plants and animals have adapted to secure water from this different source. This has led to the creation of mist oases – called “lomas” in Peru. I visited two of these places, and they were probably the most unique habitats I have visited in my life.
The first lomas I visited is a well known and popular national reserve called Lomas Lachay, which is north of Lima. As I was driving on the Pan-American highway, I was amazed by just how barren the desert was out there. Then I turned off the highway on this dirt road that started going up into the mountains. After a short while, the mist got thicker and the ground turned from sand to a sort of black bio-crust.
Then I hit the lomas, and was completely blown away. Suddenly in front of me was a lush green carpet of vines and bushy plants, shrouded in the densest mist I have ever seen.
I continued driving on the muddy road in the reserve to the beautiful songs of Peruvian meadowlarks, which are red unlike our yellow meadowlarks.
I then hiked around on these very muddy trails (from all the fog). Some of these trails quite steep, and I had some difficulty keeping my footing on the downhills. I spent several hours at this place, looking for hummingbirds, and while I was unable to find any, I was able to deeply enjoy this wonderful reserve and mist oasis.
After Lomas Lachay, I went to another lomas – whose name I am still not sure of but I think it is called Lomas Pachacamac. This was not an official reserve, and I actually had to drive around a wall that blocked the main road into it. This lomas did not have as many trees and the mist was a bit less dense than Lachay, but it was still very lush and green. I tried driving around the area a bit, but the roads were incredibly steep and narrow, so I just walked them. At this place, I found many burrowing owls, which were fun to watch.
Overall, these experiences in these mist oases were just astounding. I am very curious to visit them when I return to Peru in February, because the costal wet season will be over, and they will potentially be dried up. I am not sure what the wildlife does at that point, but I will try to figure out it next time I visit! I hope you enjoyed this post on these unique mist oases, and my next post will be about my wonderful trip to the Central Andes of Peru!